Grad Banja Luka, kao i ostatak BiH bilježi visoke stope nezaposlenosti. Analiza karakteristika nezaposlenih osoba ukazuje na sljedeće podatke. Prema podacima ZZZRS, za 31/12/2016. godine, na evidenciji Biroa za zapošljavanje Banja Luka, evidentirano je ukupno 14.192 lica, od čega je dugoročno nezaposleno1 73% (odnosno 10.362 lica). Udio žena u broju nezaposlenih je 52.83% a udio u broju dugoročno nezaposlenih 52.81% što ukazuje na odsustvo statistički značajnih razlika u dugoročnoj nezaposlenosti po osnovu pola. 30.3% dugoročno nezaposlenih su osobe do 35 godina starosti (ukupno 3.139 lica). Od ovog broja, približno dvije trećine (2.038 lica) imaju srednju ili nižu stručnu spremu. Navedena grupa od 2.038 osoba: dugoročno nezaposlena lica sa srednjom ili nižom stručnom spremom starosti do 35 godina, predstavljaju osnovnu ciljnu grupu korisnika projekta. Unutar ove grupe ne postoji statistički značajna razlika prema polu (1.031 M / 1.007 Ž).

Imajući u vidu planirane rezultate, broj dugoročno nezaposlenih osoba u Banja Luci sa srednjom ili nižom stručnom spremom starosti do 35 godina će biti umanjena za 5% (100/2038 * 100%) Unutar osnovne ciljne grupe krajnjih korisnika, prepoznate su i specifične grupe:  Interni migranti iz ruralnih područja u Grad Banja Luku, čije učešće u osnovnoj ciljnoj grupi je putem posrednih indikatora procijenjeno na 24%. Isti pokazatelji ukazuju da ove osobe dominiraju u grupi lica sa najnižim stepenima stručne spreme (NK/PK). U ukupnoj ciljnoj grupi broj ovih lica je 213, od čega je broj osoba porijeklom iz ruralnih područja procijenjen na 157 lica (71%). Ova grupa će većinski biti zastupljena na oglednoj farmi koja je predviđena za proizvodnju u ovom projektu (manja vjerovatnoća posjedovanja vlastitog zemljišta) i u manjoj mjeri u grupi korisnika koji registruju gazdinstva na vlastitom zemljištu.

 

 

Osobe sa invaliditetom, kojih je na evidenciji ZZZRS (31/12/2016) u statusu dugoročno nezaposlenih 261 lice. U ovoj grupi dominiraju starije osobe: samo 12 dugoročno nezaposlenih osoba sa invaliditetom je mlađe od 35 godina. U ovoj kategoriji stoga starosna dob ne mora biti obavezujući kriterij za učešće u projektu.  Analiza pokazuje da ne postoje statistički značajne razlike u dugoročnoj nezaposlenosti žena i muškaraca kao ni u njihovoj distribuciji u odnosu na stepen stručne spreme. Imajući u vidu posvećenost LPZ-a osiguranju jednakih prilika za žene i muškarce, projektom će osigurati jednaka zastupljenost i zadovoljavanje specifičnih potreba oba pola. Opisana ciljna grupa krajnjih korisnika, zbog nedostatka kvalifikacija, profesionalnih i socijalnih vještina spada u grupu teško zapošljivih osoba. Radi se o osobama kojima su stoga nedostupne formalne prilike za zapošljavanje i često su prisiljeni prihvatati neformalne poslove. Projektni pristup stoga nije formiran na pokušaju integracije ovih osoba na postojeća radna mjesta. Potražnja na tržištu radne snage je stoga, projektnim pristupom, zamijenjena potražnjom za proizvodima, a krajnjim korisnicima je osiguran pristup tržištu – odnosno plasman proizvoda. Za obje planirane grupe poljoprivrednih kultura: jagodičasto voće i povrće, LPZ osigurava siguran plasman po cijenama koje omogućavaju rad dostojan čovjeka.

Razvoj urbane poljoprivrede u BiH je od naročite važnosti u kontekstu visoke stope migracija iz ruralnih ka urbanim sredinama. Razlozi za migraciju su težišno ekonomski: (1) zastarjeli način proizvodnje koji donosi manje prinose i visoko je osjetljiv je na klimatske uticaje, i (2) neuređeno tržište sa velikim brojem posrednika između proizvođača i krajnjeg kupca. Zbog nepovoljne obrazovne strukture i ograničenih ekonomskih mogućnosti, ruralno stanovništvo se uglavnom naseljava u prigradskim naseljima (fenomen hibridnih „periurban“ sredina, prisutan i u EU). Ove osobe preseljenjem ne rješavaju ključni razlog za migraciju: zbog nedostatka obrazovanja, znanja i vještina traženih na urbanom tržištu rada najčešće su nezaposleni ili rade nisko vrednovane poslove3 . Posljedica ovog stanja je da znatan broj ovih osoba nastavlja migracije ka zemljama EU u kojim zbog neadekvatnih kompetencija također ne ostvaruju punu radnu ni socijalnu integraciju. Dugoročno zadržavanje u ovom statusu rezultira socijalnim isključivanjem, koje se često prenosi i na narednu generaciju. Socijalno isključivanje unutar ove grupe dobija i dodatnu dimenziju (višestruke socijalne isključenosti) za one članove koji su isključeni i po drugim osnovama (žene, osobe sa invaliditetom).

Promjena opisanog stanja zahtijeva integralnu i dugoročnu podršku. Lokalno partnerstvo za zapošljavanje, pokrenuto ovim projektom će stoga, kroz svoje aktivnosti osigurati podršku u kreiranju potpunog lanca vrijednosti za proizvodnju hrane u uslovima urbane poljoprivrede, te formiranje oglednog dobra i zadruge koji će projektne rezultate učiniti održivim i prenosivim na druge lokacije. Podrška korisnicima će se kontinuirano provoditi tokom dvije poljoprivredne sezone – do njihove procijenjene potpune održivosti. Za postizanje prikazanih specifičnih ciljeva, nužno je postići jedinstvo djelovanja ključnih aktera. Naime, identifikacija i motivacija krajnjih korisnika, uspostava lanca vrijednosti za odabrane poljoprivredne proizvode, osiguranje stručne podrške i veze sa tržištem,složen je zadatak koji zahtijeva sinhronizovano djelovanje većeg broja aktera iz različitih sektora.

Projekat finansira Evropska unija. Realizacija projekta ostvarena je uz učešće partnera projekta: Poljoprivredni fakultet Univerziteta u Banjoj Luci, Grad Banja Luka, Zavod za zapošljavanje Republike Srpske, Udruženje Razvojni centar Argonet, Mushrooms Trade d.o.o., GOPA mbH, Predstavništvo u BiH / Projekat zapošljavanja mladih (YEP) i Caritas Švicarske.

Projekat je baziran na razvoju i implementaciji koncepta Urbane poljoprivrede kao modela za zapošljavanje. Urbana poljoprivreda je model koji se odnosi na uzgajanje, preradu i distribuciju hrane u, ili u neposrednoj blizini naseljenih mjesta. Osnovna karakteristika urbane poljoprivrede je lokalna proizvodnja hrane za lokalnu upotrebu – koncept koji osigurava: zapošljavanje stanovništva, kultivaciju gradskih i prigradskih površina, više hrane i zdraviju ishranu, povećanje ekonomske moći grada i stanovnika, jače veze među stanovnicima. Tipični način proizvodnje u urbanoj poljoprivredi je biointenzivna metoda – kojom se na ograničenim površinama proizvode velike količine organske hrane.

Opšti cilj projekta je unaprijeđeno posredovanje u zapošljavanju, te stvaranje povoljnijeg okruženja za nova radna mjesta kroz uspostavu partnerstava i razvoj održivog modela zapošljavanja mladih u poljoprivredi korištenjem koncepta urbane poljoprivrede i zadrugarstva. Opšti cilj projekta biće realizovan putem dva specifična cilja: 1. Integracija i formalno zapošljavanje nezaposlenih mladih ljudi i žena u gradskom području kroz stvaranje preduslova za buđenje njihovih vlastitih poduzetničkih vještina u poljoprivredi, 2. Dokumentovanje procesa razvoja oglednog dobra i zadruge radi transfera na nove lokacije.

Kroz aktivnosti projekta će biti integrisano 20 dugoročno nezaposlenih bez vlastitog zemljišta (na oglednom dobru) te obučeno dodatnih 80 koji će formalizovati bavljenje poljoprivrednom proizvodnjom na vlastitom zemljištu. Osobe će proći savjetodavni i selekcijski proces od strane Zavoda za zapošljavanje RS, Biro Banja Luka, nakon čega će odabrani korisnici proći stručne obuke i dobiti mentorsku stručnu podršku tokom procesa proizvodnje. Obuka će obuhvatiti i mlade nezaposlene agronome, koji će potom biti angažovani kao stručni savjetodavci, odnosno budući lideri unutar korisničke grupe. Finalno, korisnici će organizacijski biti podržani u osnivanju zadruge, koja će im omogućiti efikasniju organizaciju, bolju tržišnu poziciju i lakšu distribuciju proizvoda.

 

City of Banja Luka, as well as the rest of BiH, records high unemployment rates. An analysis of the characteristics of the unemployed indicates the following data. According to the RS Employment Agency, dated on 31/12/2016, in the record of the Employment Bureau of Banja Luka, a total of 14,192 persons were registered, of which 73% (or 10,362 persons) were long-term unemployed. The share of women in the number of the unemployed is 52.83% and the share of the long-term unemployed is 52.81%, which indicates the absence of statistically significant differences in long-term unemployment based on gender. 30.3% are long-term unemployed persons up to 35 years of age (a total of 3.139 persons). Of this number, approximately two-thirds (2,038 persons) have a secondary or lower qualification. This group of 2,038 persons: long-term unemployed persons with secondary or lower secondary education up to 35 years of age represent the main target group of project beneficiaries. Within this group, there is no statistically significant difference based on gender (1.031 M / 1.007 F).

Taking into account the planned results, the number of the long-term unemployed persons in Banja Luka with a secondary or lower secondary education of up to 35 years will be reduced by 5% (100/2038 * 100%). Within the main target group of end users, specific groups are also recognized: Internal migrants from rural areas in the City of Banja Luka, whose participation in the main target group is indirectly estimated at 24%. The same indicators imply that these people dominate the group of people with the lowest levels of vocational qualification (unskilled workers/ semi-skilled workers). In the overall target group, the number of these persons is 213, of which the number of people from rural areas is estimated at 157 (71%). This group will most likely be represented on the sample farm intended for production in this project (less likely to own land) and to a lesser extent in the group of users who register farms on their own land.

 

 

The number of people with disabilities, who are in the status of long-term unemployed, amounts to 261 persons in the record of the RS Employment Agency (31/12/2016). This group is dominated by older people: only 12 long-term unemployed persons with disabilities are under the age of 35. In this category, therefore, the age does not have to be a necessary criterion for participation in the project. The analysis shows that there are no statistically significant differences in long-term unemployment of women and men as well as in their distribution compared to the degree of qualification. Bearing in mind the commitment of the LPE to ensure equal opportunities for women and men, the project will ensure equal representation and meeting the specific needs of both genders. The descriptive target group of end users, due to the lack of qualifications, professional and social skills, belongs to a group of difficult to employ people. These are people for whom therefore formal employment opportunities are unavailable and are often forced to accept informal jobs. The project approach is therefore not designed to try to integrate these people into existing jobs. Demand on the labor market is therefore through project approach replaced by product demand, and for end users access to the market is ensured – i.e. product placement. For both planned groups of agricultural crops: berries and vegetables, the LPZ provides secured placement at prices that allow decent living for workers

The development of urban agriculture in BiH is of particular importance in the context of high rates of migration from rural to urban areas. Reasons for migration are critically economic: (1) the obsolete mode of production that brings lower yields and is highly susceptible to climate impacts, and (2) the unregulated market with a large number of intermediaries between the producer and the end customer. Because of the unfavorable educational structure and limited economic opportunities, the rural population is mostly settled in suburban settlements (the phenomenon of hybrid “peri-urban” environment, present also in the EU). These displacements do not address the key reason for migration: due to the lack of education, knowledge and skills required in the urban labor market, they are often unemployed or doing low-value jobs. The consequence of this situation is that a significant number of these persons continue to migrate to EU countries where, due to inadequate competences, they also do not realize full employment or social integration. Long-term retention in this status results in social exclusion, which is often passed on to the next generation. Social exclusion within this group also gains an additional dimension (multiple social exclusion) for those who are excluded on other grounds (women, persons with disabilities).

Changing the described situation requires integrated and long-term support. The local partnership for employment, initiated by this project, will therefore, through its activities, provide support in creating a complete value chain for food production in the conditions of urban agriculture, and the establishment of a test property and a cooperative that will make the project results sustainable and transferable to other locations. Customer support will be continuously carried out during the two agricultural seasons – to their estimated total sustainability. In order to achieve the specific objectives outlined, it is necessary to achieve the unity of action of key participants. Namely, the identification and motivation of end users, the establishment of a value chain for selected agricultural products, the provision of expert support and connection to the market, is a complex task requiring the synchronized action of a large number of participants from different sectors.

The project is funded by the European Union. The realization of the project was realized with the participation of the project partners: Faculty of Agriculture, University of Banja Luka, City of Banja Luka, RS Employment Agency, Argonet Development Center, Mushrooms Trade doo, GOPA mbH, BiH Representative Office / Youth Employment Project (YEP) and Caritas Switzerland.

The project is based on the development and implementation of the Urban Agriculture concept as a model for employment. Urban agriculture is a model that refers to the cultivation, processing and distribution of food in, or in the immediate vicinity of populated areas. The basic characteristic of urban agriculture is the local production of food for local use – a concept that ensures: the employment of the population, the cultivation of urban and suburban areas, more food and healthier food, increasing the economic power of town and inhabitants, stronger connections among the inhabitants. The typical method of production in urban agriculture is the biointensive method – which produces large amounts of organic food on limited areas.

The overall objective of the project is to improve employment mediation and to create a more favorable environment for new jobs through the establishment of partnerships and the development of a sustainable model of employment of young people in agriculture using the concept of urban agriculture and co-operatives. The overall objective of the project will be realized through two specific objectives: 1. Integration and formal employment of unemployed young people and women in the urban area through the creation of preconditions for promoting their own entrepreneurial skills in agriculture; 2. Documenting the process of development of the experimental property and the cooperative for the transfer to new locations .

Through the activities of the project, 20 of the long-term unemployed with no land of their own will be integrated (in the experimental property), and additional 80 will be trained, which will formalize the cultivation of agricultural production on their own land. People will go through advisory and selection process by the RS Employment Bureau, Banja Luka Employment Bureau, after which selected beneficiaries will undergo professional training and receive mentor support during the production process. The training will include young unemployed agronomists, who will then be engaged as expert advisers, or future leaders within the user group. Finally, beneficiaries will be organizationally supported in the establishment of a cooperative, which will enable them a more efficient organization, better market position and easier distribution of products.